able 3-4 shows a number of formula examples that demonstrate a variety of summing

techniques.

Table 3-4: Summing Formula Examples

Formula Description

=SUMIF(Sales,”>200”) Sum of all Sales over 200

=SUMIF(Month,”Jan”,Sales) Sum of Sales in which Month = “Jan”

=SUMIF(Month,”Jan”,Sales)+SUMIF(Month,”Feb”,Sales) Sum of Sales in which Month =”Jan” or “Feb”

Chapter 3: Formula Tricks and Techniques 71

Formula Description

{=SUM((Month=”Jan”)*(Region=”North”)*Sales)} Sum of Sales in which Month=”Jan” and

Region=”North”

=SUMIFS(Sales,Month,”Jan”,Region,”North”) Sum of Sales in which Month=”Jan” and

Region=”North” (Excel 2007 and later)

{=SUM((Month=”Jan”)*(Region=”North”)*Sales)} An array formula that returns the sum of Sales

in which Month=”Jan” and Region=”North”

=SUMIFS(Sales,Month,”Jan”,Region,”<>North”) Sum of Sales in which Month=”Jan” and Region

<> “North” (Excel 2007 and later)

{=SUM((Month=”Jan”)*(Region<>”North”)*Sales)} An array formula that returns the sum of Sales

in which Month=”Jan” and Region <> “North”

=SUMIFS(Sales,Month,”Jan”,Sales,”>=200”) Sum of Sales in which Month=”Jan” and

Sales>=200 (Excel 2007 and later)

{=SUM((Month=”Jan”)*(Sales>=200)*(Sales))} An array formula that returns the sum of Sales

in which Month=”Jan” and Sales>=200

=SUMIFS(Sales,Sales,”>=300”,Sales,”<=400”) Sum of Sales between 300 and 400 (Excel
2007 and later)
{=SUM((Sales>=300)*(Sales<=400)*(Sales))} An array formula that returns the sum of Sales
between 300 and 400
Other counting tools
Other ways to count or sum cells that meet certain criteria are:
h Filtering (using a table)
h Advanced filtering
h The DCOUNT and DSUM functions
h Pivot tables
For more information, consult the Help system.
Working with Dates and Times
Excel uses a serial number system to store dates. The earliest date that Excel can understand is
January 1, 1900. This date has a serial number of 1. January 2, 1900, has a serial number of 2, and
so on.
Most of the time, you don’t have to be concerned with Excel’s serial number date system. You
simply enter a date in a familiar date format, and Excel takes care of the details behind the
scenes. For example, if you need to enter August 15, 2010, you can simply enter the date by typing August 15, 2010 (or use any of a number of different date formats). Excel interprets your
entry and stores the value 40405, which is the serial number for that date.
72 Part I: Some Essential Background
In this chapter, I assume the U.S. date system. If your computer uses a different date
system, you’ll need to adjust accordingly. For example, you might need to enter 15
August, 2010.
Entering dates and times
When working with times, you simply enter the time into a cell in a recognized format. Excel’s
system for representing dates as individual values is extended to include decimals that represent
portions or fractions of days. In other words, Excel perceives all time with the same system
whether that time is a particular day, a certain hour, or a specific second. For example, the date
serial number for August 15, 2010, is 40405. Noon (halfway through the day) is represented
internally as 40405.5. Again, you normally don’t have to be concerned with these fractional serial
numbers.
Because dates and times are stored as serial numbers, it stands to reason that you can add and
subtract dates and times. For example, you can enter a formula to calculate the number of days
between two dates. If cells A1 and A2 both contain dates, the following formula returns the number of intervening days:
=A2-A1
When performing calculations with time, things get a bit trickier. When you enter a
time without an associated date, the date is assumed to be January 0, 1900 (date serial
number 0). This is not a problem — unless your calculation produces a negative time
value. When this happens, Excel displays an error (displayed as #########). The solution? Switch to the 1904 date system. Display the Excel Options dialog box, click the
Advanced tab, and then enable the Use 1904 Date System check box. Be aware that
switching to the 1904 date system can cause problems with dates already entered in
your file or dates in workbooks that are linked to your file.
In some cases, you may need to use time values to represent duration, rather than a
point in time. For example, you may need to sum the number of hours worked in a
week. When you add time values, you can’t display more than 24 hours. For each
24-hour period, Excel simply adds another day to the total. The solution is to change
the number formatting to use square brackets around the hour part of the format. The
following number format, for example, displays more than 24 hours:
[hh]:mm
Chapter 3: Formula Tricks and Techniques 73
Using pre-1900 dates
The world, of course, didn’t begin on January 1, 1900. People who work with historical information when using Excel often need to work with dates before January 1, 1900. Unfortunately, the
only way to work with pre-1900 dates is to enter the date into a cell as text. For example, you
can enter the following into a cell, and Excel won’t complain:
July 4, 1776
You can’t, however, perform any manipulation on dates that are actually text. For example, you
can’t change its formatting, you can’t determine which day of the week this date occurred on,
and you can’t calculate the date that occurs seven days later.
VBA, however, supports a much wider range of dates. I created a number of VBA worksheet functions
that allow you to work with pre-1900 dates. Figure 3-9 shows a demonstration of these functions
used in a worksheet. It’s also an excellent example of how VBA can extend the features in Excel.
Figure 3-9: The Extended Date Functions add-in lets you work with pre-1900 dates.
See Chapter 10 for more information about the Extended Date functions.
74 Part I: Some Essential Background
Creating Megaformulas
Often, a formula requires intermediate formulas to produce a desired result. In other words, a formula may depend on other formulas, which in turn depend on other formulas. After you get all
these formulas working correctly, you can often eliminate the intermediate formulas and use
what I refer to as a single megaformula instead. The advantages? You use fewer cells (less clutter), the file size is smaller, and recalculation may even be a bit faster. The main disadvantage is
that the formula may be impossible to decipher or modify.
Here’s an example: Imagine a worksheet that has a column with thousands of people’s names. And
suppose that you’ve been asked to remove all the middle names and middle initials from the names —
but not all the names have a middle name or initial. Editing the cells manually would take hours, and
even Excel’s Data➜Data Tools➜Text To Columns command isn’t much help. So you opt for a formulabased solution. Although this task isn’t difficult, it normally involves several intermediate formulas.
Figure 3-10 shows the results of the more conventional solution, which requires six intermediate
formulas shown in Table 3-5. The names are in column A; the end result goes in column H.
Columns B through G hold the intermediate formulas.
Figure 3-10: Removing the middle names and initials requires intermediate formulas.
Table 3-5: Intermediate Formulas Written In Row 2 in Figure 3-10
Column Intermediate Formula What It Does
B =TRIM(A2) Removes excess spaces.
C =FIND(“ “,B2,1) Locates the first space.
D =FIND(“ “,B2,C2+1) Locates the second space. Returns #VALUE! if there is no second
space.
E =IF(ISERROR(D2),C2,D2) Uses the first space if no second space exists.
F =LEFT(B2,C2) Extracts the first name.
G =RIGHT(B2,LEN(B2)-E2) Extracts the last name.
H =F2&G2 Concatenates the two names.
Chapter 3: Formula Tricks and Techniques 75
You can eliminate the intermediate formulas by creating a megaformula. You do so by creating
all the intermediate formulas and then going back into the final result formula and replacing each
cell reference with a copy of the formula in the cell referred to (without the equal sign).
Fortunately, you can use the Clipboard to copy and paste. Keep repeating this process until cell
H2 contains nothing but references to cell A2. You end up with the following megaformula in one
cell:
=LEFT(TRIM(A2),FIND
(“ “,TRIM(A2),1))&RIGHT(TRIM(A2),LEN(TRIM(A2))-
IF(ISERROR(FIND(“ “,TRIM(A2),FIND(“ “,TRIM(A2),1)+1)),
FIND(“ “,TRIM(A2),1),FIND(“ “,TRIM(A2),FIND
(“ “,TRIM(A2),1)+1)))
When you’re satisfied that the megaformula is working, you can delete the columns that hold the
intermediate formulas because they’re no longer used.
The megaformula performs exactly the same tasks as all the intermediate formulas — although
it’s virtually impossible for anyone to figure out, even the author. If you decide to use megaformulas, make sure that the intermediate formulas are performing correctly before you start building a megaformula. Even better, keep a single copy of the intermediate formulas somewhere in
case you discover an error or need to make a change.
Another way to approach this problem is to create a custom worksheet function in VBA. Then
you could replace the megaformula with a simple formula, such as
=NOMIDDLE(A1)
In fact, I wrote such a function to compare it with intermediate formulas and megaformulas. The
listing follows.
Function NOMIDDLE(n) As String
Dim FirstName As String, LastName As String
n = Application.WorksheetFunction.Trim(n)
FirstName = Left(n, InStr(1, n, “ “))
LastName = Right(n, Len(n) - InStrRev(n, “ “))
NOMIDDLE = FirstName & LastName
End Function
A workbook that contains the intermediate formulas, the megaformula, and the
NOMIDDLE VBA function is available on the companion CD-ROM. The workbook is
named megaformula.xlsm.
76 Part I: Some Essential Background
Because a megaformula is so complex, you may think that using one slows down recalculation.
Actually, that’s not the case. As a test, I created a workbook that used the megaformula 175,000
times. Then I created another workbook that used six intermediate formulas to compute the
175,000 results. I compared the results in terms of calculation time and file size; see Table 3-6.
Table 3-6: Comparing Intermediate Formulas and Megaformula
Method Recalculation Time (Seconds) File Size
Intermediate formulas 5.8 12.60MB
Megaformula 3.9 2.95MB
The actual results will vary significantly, depending on system speed, amount of memory
installed, and the actual formula.
The VBA function was much slower — I abandoned the timed test after five minutes. This is fairly
typical of VBA functions; they are always slower than built-in Excel functions.
77
4
Understanding Excel Files
In This Chapter
● Starting Excel
● Opening and saving different types of files in Excel
● Introducing the XML file format in Excel 2007
● Figuring out how Excel uses the Windows Registry
Starting Excel
You can start Excel in various ways, depending on how it’s installed. You can click an icon on the
desktop, use the Windows Start button, or double-click a file associated with the Excel application. All methods ultimately launch the excel.exe executable file.
When Excel 2010 starts, it performs the following actions:
h It reads its settings stored in the Windows Registry.
h It reads and applies any Quick Access toolbar or Ribbon customizations defined in the
Excel.officeUI file.
h It opens the *.xlb menu/toolbar customization file.
h It opens all add-ins that are installed (that is, those that are checked in the Add-Ins
dialog box).
h It opens any workbooks that are in the XLStart directory.
h It opens any workbooks that are in the alternate start-up directory (specified in the
Advanced tab of the Excel Options dialog box).
h It determines whether Excel ended with a crash the last time it was used. If so, it displays
a list of autorecovered workbooks.
h It displays an empty workbook — unless the user specified a workbook to open or one or
more files were found in the XLStart or alternate start-up directory.
78 Part I: Some Essential Background
You can install Excel in any location. But in most cases, the Excel executable file is located in the
default installation directory:
C:\Program Files\Microsoft Office\Office14\EXCEL.EXE
You can create one or more shortcuts to this executable file and customize those shortcuts’ various parameters, or command line switches. Table 4-1 lists these command line switches.
Table 4-1: Excel Command Line Switches
Switch What It Does
filename Opens the specified file. The filename is a parameter and does not require a switch.
/r filename Opens the specified file in read-only mode.
/t filename Opens the specified file as a template.
/n filename Opens the specified file as a template (same as /t).
/e Starts Excel without creating a new workbook and without displaying its splash
screen.
/p directory Sets the active path to a directory other than the default directory.
/s Starts Excel in Safe mode and does not load any add-ins or files in the XLStart or
alternate start-up file directories.
/m Forces Excel to create a new workbook that contains a single Microsoft Excel 4.0
macro sheet (obsolete).
You can experiment with these command line switches by using the Windows Start➜Run command (or use the Search box to start the Windows Run program). Put the path to Excel in
quotes, followed by a space and the command line switch. Figure 4-1 shows an example.
One way to specify any of these switches is to edit the properties of the shortcut that starts
Excel. For example, if there are times when you’d like Excel to start and use a folder named
c:\xlfiles as its default folder, you can customize a Windows shortcut. In this case, you need
to use the /p switch and specify the folde