excel Cell and Range References

Most formulas refer to one or more cells. You can make cell references by using the cell’s or
range’s address or name (if it has one). Cell references come in four styles:
h Relative: The reference is fully relative. When the formula is copied, the cell reference
adjusts to its new location. Example: A1.
h Absolute: The reference is fully absolute. When the formula is copied, the cell reference
doesn’t change. Example: $A$1.
h Row Absolute: The reference is partially absolute. When the formula is copied, the column part adjusts, but the row part doesn’t change. Example: A$1.
h Column Absolute: The reference is partially absolute. When the formula is copied, the
row part adjusts, but the column part doesn’t change. Example: $A1.
By default, all cell and range references are relative. To change a reference, you must manually
add the dollar signs. Or, when editing a cell in the formula bar, move the cursor to a cell address
and press F4 repeatedly to cycle through all four types of cell referencing